Europainstitut / Institute for European Global Studies
Universität Basel, Switzerland
Jeremy Prestholdt specializes in African, Indian Ocean, and global history with emphases on consumer culture and politics. His first book, Domesticating the World: African Consumerism and the Genealogies of Globalization (2008), addressed East African demands for imported goods and how these shaped global exchanges in the second half of the nineteenth century. His current research moves in two directions. One project addresses political culture, violence, and claims of autochthony—or 'original' habitation—at Kenya's coast. A second project combines his interests in consumer culture and politics by exploring popular attraction to four of the world’s most ubiquitous icons: Che Guevara, Bob Marley, Tupac Shakur, and Osama bin Laden. Through the medium of popular heroes, the project traces the development of shared global imagery, highlights the mutability of common references, and charts the commodification of political sentiment since the 1960s.
National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship, 2011-2012
Norwegian Research Council, Project: ‘Linking Global Cities,’ 2007-2010 (Lead Researcher: Anne Bang)
Outstanding African Studies Professor 2009, University of California, San Diego
Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation Research Grant, 2007-2008
Fulbright-Council for the International Exchange of Scholars, Research Scholar, Department of History, University of Bergen, Norway, 2005-2006
Postdoctoral Fellowship, Institute for Historical Analysis, Rutgers University, 2005-2006 (declined, named Associate Fellow)
Rockefeller Fellowship, Project: ‘Other Globalizations,’ Center for Cultural Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, 2003-2004
Woodrow Wilson Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship, 2002-2003
Bernadotte E. Schmitt Award for Research in European, Asian, or African History, American Historical Association, 2002
Social Science Research Council - International Dissertation and Research Fellowship, 2000
Fulbright-Institute for International Education Dissertation Fellowship, 1999-2000
Fulbright-Hays Dissertation Research Fellowship, 1999-2000 (declined)
Domesticating the World: African Consumerism and the Genealogies of Globalization (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008)
Popular Heroes and the Transnational Imagination since the Sixties (forthcoming)
“From Zanzibar to Beirut: Sayyida Salme bint Said and the Tensions of Cosmopolitanism,” in James L. Gelvin and Nile Green, eds. Global Islam in the Age of Steam and Print, 1850-1930. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013, 204-226.
“Fighting Phantoms: The United States and Counterterrorism in Eastern Africa,” in Gershon Shafir, Everard Meade, and William J. Aceves, eds. From Moral Manic to Permanent War: Lessons and Legacies of the War on Terror. London: Routledge, 2013, 127-56.
“Resurrecting Che: Radicalism, the Transnational Imagination and the Politics of Heroes,” Journal of Global History 7, 3 (2012): 506-526.
“Africa and the Global Lives of Things,” in Frank Trentmann, ed., The Oxford Handbook on the History of Consumption. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
“Kenya, the United States, and the Politics of Counterterrorism,” Africa Today 57, 4 (June 2011): 3-27.
“Superpower Osama: Thoughts on Symbolic Discourse in the Indian Ocean after the Cold War,” in Christopher J. Lee, ed., Tensions of Postcoloniality: The Bandung Moment and Its Political Afterlives. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2010.
“Mirroring Modernity: On Consumerism in Nineteenth Century Zanzibar,” Trans/forming Cultures 4, 2 (2009) (reprinted from Boston University African Studies Center Working Paper Series, January 2006)
“Phantom of the Forever War: Fazul Abdullah Mohammad and the Terrorist Imaginary,” Public Culture 21, 3 (2009): 451-64.
“The Afterlives of 2pac: Imagery and Alienation in Sierra Leone and Beyond,” Journal of African Cultural Studies 21, 2 (2009): 197-218.
“Similitude and Empire: On Comorian Strategies of Englishness,” Journal of World History 8, 2 (June 2007): 113-40.
“On the Global Repercussions of East African Consumerism,” The American Historical Review 109, 3 (2004): 755-81.
“Portuguese Conceptual Categories and the ‘Other’ Encounter on the Swahili Coast,” Journal of Asian and African Studies 36, 4 (2001): 383-406. Reprinted in Conceptualizing/Re-Conceptualizing Africa: The Construction of African Historical Identity. Ed. Maghan Keita. Boston: Brill, 2002. 53-76.
“As Artistry Permits and Custom May Ordain: The Social Fabric of Material Consumption in the Swahili World,” Northwestern University Program for African Studies Working Paper no. 3. Evanston: Northwestern University, 1998.
“Locating the Indian Ocean: Notes on the Reconstitution of Space after Empire”
“Politics of the Soil: Autochthony, Decolonization, and Secessionism at Kenya’s Coast”
“The Airplane and the Clock: the Logics and Legacies of the One Party State in Kenya”
The politicization of ethnic, racial, and religious identities is among the most pressing and misunderstood issues of our time. Intersections of social and political identity, and their contribution to violence, focused the world's attention on Kenya in 2008. The violence that followed Kenya’s presidential elections seemed to repeat a familiar African pattern: deep, antagonistic ethnic divisions ravaging a fragile democracy. Yet this model of Kenya errs in taking social categories as primary, enduring markers of social difference. Since the end of British colonial rule in the 1960s identity-oriented violence has not been constant, but instead has coincided with high-stakes political contests. The question of how identity is politicized, and then mobilized for collective action, is therefore central to understanding civil strife in Kenya. To better appreciate the relation of social identity to electoral violence this project explores the culture of political engagement in Kenya since the late colonial era, focusing on moments of significant social tension. Just as important, I address a dimension of social polarization that has not received adequate critical attention: the linking of identity to location. Drawing from an emerging cross-disciplinary literature on autochthony, or claims to 'original' habitation, this book investigates the practice of evoking exclusive rights based on historical presence. I argue that the dichotomous vision inherent in autochthony discourse--of the past as constituted by insiders and outsiders--has linked rights to ethnicity, while the practice of labeling certain Kenyans 'foreigners' has proven an effective political tool. By exploring how conceptualizations of space and history have acted as catalysts for mobilization, this project offers a new interpretation of social polarization in Kenya.
Though many communities in Kenya have experienced civil unrest, this project is among the first to offer a history of political culture in Coast Province, the location of Kenya’s largest port and second largest city: Mombasa. Defined by webs of transoceanic social and economic relation that have connected Africa to Arabia and India for millennia, the Coast Province is one of the most socially heterogeneous regions of the continent. With British rule in the twentieth century, the urban centers of the Kenyan coast retained their Indian Ocean and Islamic orientation, but non-Muslim migrants from across the colony also came to the coast in search of economic opportunity. Administratively, economically, and socially the coast became increasingly tied to Nairobi, Kenya’s center of political and economic power. These multiple and overlapping contexts of Indian Ocean and domestic spheres—of ethnic, racial, and religious diversity—offered fertile ground for the politicization of social identities. As a result, coastal Kenya is one of the few places on the African continent that has experienced not only significant ethnic strife but also hostility between communities defined by race and religion. Sea, Soil, and the State consists of six overlapping case studies, each addressing a period of rising political tension in Kenya’s history. Each chapter also focuses on a particular means of deploying or reconstituting identity categories, including the development of race-based political parties, the fortification of ethnic blocs under the one-party state, and the use of religion as a catalyst for mobilization in the era of multiparty politics.
This book explores the remarkable, and often contradictory, meanings ascribed to four of the world's most ubiquitous icons: Che Guevara, Bob Marley, Tupac Shakur, and Osama bin Laden. Using popular figures as barometers of transnational sentiments since the 1960s, the book examines the convergence of a transnational imagination—or way of seeing that frames local circumstances in a world historical trajectory and so affects collective aspirations—and significant disillusionment. The celebration of heroes offers a unique window on the rift between our common references and locally contingent translations. Popular heroes reflect popular sentiment, political sensibility, and consumer desire. They transcend cultural and economic boundaries, and they are rapidly integrated into consumer trends. Moreover, investigating the appeal of popular heroes reveals two aspects of our increasingly interconnected world that are otherwise difficult to discern: 1) the tension between a common attraction to symbols and the great difference in how we see, and 2) the intersection of political vision and consumerism. Through case studies of four icons in diverse social contexts, Popular Heroes tells the story of how people in different locales have developed symbolic vocabularies that are simultaneously transnational and intensely local.
Che, Bob, Osama, and Tupac iconography reveal how profoundly individual lives are mediated by shared references, how so many people seek deeper meanings for their experiences in global popular culture. A prominent symbol of New Left radicalism in the 1960s, Che was revived in the early 1990s as both a revolutionary role model and a nostalgia-infused fashion symbol. After his death in 1996, Tupac became the prophetic voice of a generation and the lodestar of multiple insurgencies from Sierra Leone to Guadalcanal. The most omnipresent of these icons, Bob Marley, has become shorthand for both anti-systemic and conciliatory rhetoric virtually everywhere in the world since the early 1980s. Moreover, interpretations of his transcendent spirituality have raised Marley to the status of a suprareligious figure. Osama bin Laden, the most recent and controversial of the folk heroes surveyed, has become a powerful symbol of defiance among Muslims and non-Muslims alike. After September 11, 2001 Osama became the embodiment of diverse critiques of US foreign policy and neoliberalism. Much like Che, Bob, and Tupac, his image has been broadly commercialized, appearing on everything from T-shirts in South Africa and Venezuela, to mobile screens in Oman and perfume bottles in Pakistan.